Reference Works Published at the Pace of Scientific Discovery
- A world-class collection of living eReferences with hundreds of thousands of articles
- Top quality, constantly updated and peer reviewed
- All of the latest and forthcoming eReferences on one platform
SpringerReference.com is a platform for researchers and academic and corporate libraries. It offers living editions of Springer's eReferences well in advance of their print editions across every subject. Through the platform, authors can submit articles and updates to their articles whenever they deem necessary to keep up with the demand for the most recent scientific developments.
Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
"Problem solving" is the process of finding out a sequence of states between the initial and the desired final state under the given constraints. This process is based on a "mental representation, a mental scheme for holding information in memory and operating on it" (Simon 1999, p. 674; Newell and Simon 1972).
Image-Guided Cancer Therapy
This chapter gives a brief overview of the historical management of breast cancer and describes the modern imaging techniques of the breast and axilla, including digital mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission mammography.